Abstract and Attributes of ASME Vessel Heat Transfer Surfaces

Learn and compare heat exchange surfaces in this e-book “Abstract and Attributes of ASME Vessel Heat Transfer Surfaces”. Review steam or fluid heat transfer methods, conventional jacket, half pipe jacket and dimple jacket solutions. Developed by Apache’s engineering team, this e-book is an informational reference for ASME and regulatory code review and general application information and comparisons.

ABSTRACT AND ATTRIBUTES OF ASME VESSEL HEAT TRANSFER SURFACES Abstract and Attributes of ASME Vessel Heat Transfer Surfaces Thermal heat exchange surfaces control the temperature in the vessel and ultimately the quality of the contents of the vessel. Heat exchange surfaces can be designed for heating or cooling. Jacketed vessels are used in many industries and can be used to remove the elevated heat of reaction (heat reactor vessel) or reduce the viscosity of high viscous fluids. There are three basic types of external jacketed heat transfer surfaces: conventional jacket, half pipe jacket and dimple jacket, which is attached to the outside of the vessel by welds. Internal coils can also be utilized and can be used as a stand-alone option or in combination with any of the other types of external jackets. This white paper serves as an educational and informational reference on heat transfer methods that use steam or fluid, including: l Types of heat exchange surfaces l General application information and comparison l Optional surface treatments l Manufacturing terms and definitions l Regulatory code review Photo: Stainless ASME tank with dimple jacket and internal coil. Discover the attributes and best uses of ASME vessel heat transfer surfaces. © Apache Stainless Equipment Corporation Conventional Jacket Conventional jackets are basically an open jacket with an annular space containing the heat transfer media on the exterior surface of the tank. In some instances, internally welded baffles within the conventional jacket control the flow of the heating or cooling agent. In Apache’s experience, water, oil or heat transfer fluid is typically used as heat transfer agents for conventional jackets. Variable coverage areas and pressures are available in conventional jacket designs. 2 © Apache Stainless Equipment Corporation Shells, bottom head, top head or the entire tank can be ASME certified. Best uses Conventional jackets are best used for low pressure applications below 50psi. They are also used in high fluid volume applications. The major advantage is that this jacket type allows for the lowest pressure drop. Conventional tank designs are often used in small vessels under 100 gallons. Note: While the conventional jacket de- sign allows the lowest pressure drop, it can also drive up cost due to the thick- ness of the material required since there is no reinforcement in the design to ac- comodate the jacket’s external pressure requirements on the vessel wall. Inflated dimple laser or resistant spot welded dimple jackets are other technol- ogies available. Application, specifications, cost and con- tractor experience are important factors when choosing the type of dimple jacket construction. Best uses The dimple jacket design provides a large heating or cooling transfer area up to 200 psig. Dimple Jackets are very versatile. They can be used to provide heat transfer or cooling for virtually any shape or size of vessel. Dimple jacket technology is not limited to tanks. On large tanks, dimple jackets have a lower price point and maintain a higher pressure drop compared to conventional jackets. On small vessels, conventional jackets have a lower price point followed by dimple jacket and half pipe solutions. Note: Dimple jackets are not recom- mended for thermal cycling or when shocking is required. Typically the stronger half-pipe design is recom- mended for those applications. 3 zone Dimple Jacket ready for transport Formed sheet and plate header Dimple Jacket Dimple jackets utilize a thin gauge stain- less steel layer that is plug welded to the vessel shell in a regular pattern. The punched and spot welded areas are called dimples, which create turbulence of the heating or cooling fluid flowing through the jacket. The Dimple Jacket design al- lows for thinner vessel shell walls than a conventional jacket design due to the strength of the dimple pattern design. Dimple Jackets are manufactured in several different pressures and patterns. Apache provides both 12 ga. and 14 ga. material. Each pattern is validated and proof tested per ASME regulations. Apache has proofed and certified designs up to 1 ¾” at 200psig at 300o F but can go to higher temperatures depending on the application. Apache provides a CNC punched “pre-formed” sheet. It is MIG and plug welded to the shell. Simple schematic shows conventional jacket construction Schematic shows plug welds on dimple jacket Half Pipe Coil Jacket The half-pipe jacketed vessel has a split pipe (split evenly or rolled formed sheet) wound around the vessel and welded into place. This design provides optimal strength and can be rated up to 500psig. Half-pipe jackets are recommended for high-temperature and liquid heat-transfer applications. Material used for half-pipe jackets are commonly 304, 304L or 316 and can be welded to a range of alloys. Sound welding practices allow the half pipe to be welded to high alloys. © Apache Stainless Equipment Corporation 3 Internal Coil Internal coils are utilized inside vessels for transient heating or cooling of the liquid contained in the tank typically on a batch basis. Coils provide heating and cooling sur- face contact and are manufactured as a formed spiral around the inside of the shell or a U-shape in the center of the vessel from the top head down. Internal coil heat transfer solutions are found in many industries. However, the ability to clean the coil effectively and efficiently may be an issue in industries that require extreme sanitation and / or food safety protocols. The internal coil design provides high flow, high internal and external pres- sures and high pipe ratings. Half pipe heat transfer surfaces can contain the entire vessel or part of the vessel depending on the application. Other technologies include inflatable half-pipe designs with laser or resis- tance welded hat sections. Best uses Half-pipe jacket designs are often used when the jacket pressure is the determining factor in vessel wall thickness. The cost is dependent on tank size, material thickness and overall application requirements. Best uses Internal coils are often used in industrial or chemical applications where the product is not corrosive to the coil. Note: Depending on the loads of the application, the required heat transfer may not be attainable. HEAT TRANSFER SURFACES Standard weld (above) and full penetration weld (below) on half-pipe jackets Conventional Jacket Dimple Jacket CRITERIA Best used for large volumes of water used to maintain high temperature difference. Conventional jackets are often used in small vessel design. PRESSURE Up to 50 psig optimally, but can be evaluated for higher pressure depending on the application. ASME Shells, bottom head, top head or the entire tank can be ASME certified. 4 © Apache Stainless Equipment Corporation CONSIDERATIONS Conventional jackets require greater shell thickness and expan- sion joints to eliminate stresses caused by thermal expansion. A row of small vessels showing channel weldments before the outer shell is added. HEAT TRANSFER SURFACES CRITERIA Dimple jackets are well suited to steam applications. High jacket pressures permitted without significant increase of side structure thickness. Efficient heat transfer at low media flow. PRESSURE 250 psig with temperature limited to 500o F. ASME Approved by the National Board of Boiler and Pressure Inspectors up to 250 psig. CONSIDERATIONS While dimple jackets are economical, it may not provide drainage required by the steam application. Formed plate or sheet headers and jumpers to maximize strength and media flow. © Apache Stainless Equipment Corporation Half Pipe Jacket Internal Coil 5 CRITERIA High jacket pressures attainable without significant increase of side structure thickness Suitable for steam, water, hot oil and other medias. PRESSURE Rated up to 500 psig. ASME Half pipe coil jackets are not covered in Section VIII, Division 1 of the ASME code. CONSIDERATIONS Half pipe may require multiple sections to reduce condensate cover on the heat transfer area. The increased strength and zone capabilities make the half pipe design suitable for hot oil medium. Tank showing half pipe construction. CRITERIA Utilized for heating and cooling surface contact with handling high internal and external pressures. Efficient heat transfer advantages. PRESSURE Rated to 900 psig. ASME Internal coils can be included as part of an ASME vessel but aren’t required to be code stamped. CONSIDERATIONS Internal coils may be subject to contamination of the vessel contents, especially if contents have corrosive properties. Internal coil shown as part of the bottom head. The stay-bolt, also referred to as stay-rod, jacket is another design for heat transfer that handles elevated temp- eratures and pressures that cause stress. Rods are indi- vidually welded between the inner shell and outer jacket providing a robust jacket design. In Apache’s food processing equipment line, Mepaco, the stay bolt jacket is used on the ThermaBlendTM Cooker. The cooker is engineered for large scale industrial batch heating and cooling operations. Due to the extremes in steam heating and cooling pro- cesses combined with constant agitation from blending, the 90+ psig, ASME rated, ThermablendTM stay bolt jacket is recommended for such demanding applications. While the stay bolt jacket is used exclusively in the Mepaco line, the dimple jackets used in the tank product line are also used in Mepaco equipment requiring heat transfer. Mixers and auger carts can also be engineered with dimple jackets to provide continuous heating or cooling to food processing applications. Temperature control on mixers, cookers and auger carts can also include steam injection and CO2.N2 injection in addition to ASME dimple jacketing. Requirements for dimple and stay bolt jackets are depen- dent on the food processing application. Visit www.mepaco.net for more information. 6 © Apache Stainless Equipment Corporation The heat shield removed on the ThermablendTM cooker exposing the stay bolt jacket. Mepaco Food Processing Equipment using Stay Bolt and Dimple Jacket Heat Transfer Solutions The auger cart is a pumping system that provides food product transfer between processes. The dimple jacket allows product to maintain required product temperatures during transfer. FINISHING OPTIONS PICKLE PASSIVATION When required for the application, Apache provides full immersion passivation as a means to remove free iron and aid in the formation of the stainless material’s passive oxide layer. Full immersion passivation is also an efficient method of color cleaning the exterior welds on a tank. Dimple jackets are often passivated as a by-product of another requirement that was specified for the tank. Passivation also helps Thurmalux adhere to stainless. THURMALOX Thurmalox is a high temperature industrial protective coating that is used on conventional, dimple and half- pipe jacket designs. © Apache Stainless Equipment Corporation 7 The product is an air-drying, silicone based heat resis- tant coating that protects thermally insulated austenitic stainless steel from chloride induced stress corrosion cracking. Apache uses Thurmalox 70, which withstands temperatures to 1000ºF (538ºC) with peaks to 1100ºF (593ºC). It is formulated to contain the minimum amounts of attainable chlorides, halides, sulfides, nitrates and met- als that induce external stress corrosion cracking. An independent laboratory for leachable chloride content tests each batch of Thurmalox 70 before it is released. Pickle passivated dimple jacket prior to insulation. Heat reactor vessel showing Thurmalox coating. TECHNICAL TERMS Agitation Agitation can be used in jacketed vessels and with internal coils to improve the homogeneity of the fluid properties. Agitation is commonly used in batch applications. Chemical Reactor A chemical reactor removes the elevated heat of reaction to reduce the viscosity of high viscous fluids. Formed Sheet and Plate Header Apache uses large formed sheet or plate headers to en- hance the flow capability of the jacket and maximize the strength of the inlet and outlets of the jacket. Heat Exchanger A device used to transfer heat between two or more fluids. Heat Transfer Media Media types include water, steam, glycol, hot oils and other fluids. Thermal Shocking Thermal shocking introduces alternating low and high tem- peratures for rapid cooling and / or heating applications. Wetted Surface The area of contact between the liquid and the wall of the tank often used to determine the emergency venting capacity required for the tank. Zones Heat transfer jacketing can be applied in individually welded zones to allow for separate zones to be thermally controlled on an individual basis. References: National Boards of Boiler and Pressure Vessel Inspectors Apache and Mepaco engineering experts and project library About Apache The Apache Stainless Equipment Corporation employs experts and artisans in the fabrication of stainless equipment for a range of industries. Our expertise in stainless and high- alloy vessels is shown on Apache’s tanks and vessels, and Mepaco’s food processing equipment used in the beverage, biotechnology, pharmaceutical and food processing industries. ASME is a leading developer of codes and standards in the mechanical engineering community. These standards enhance public safety and health as well as promote innovation. Apache has been ASME certified for over 40 years. In addition to ASME, Apache is also accredited in many other global standards. By setting parameters for quality and compliance, we offer greater value for our equipment products. Apache consists of four business groups: ASME tanks, portable vessels, contract manufacturing and Mepaco®. With modifiable options, Mepaco’s product line includes: thermal processing equipment, mixers, blenders, augers, dumpers, sanitary conveyors and material handling systems. As a 100% employee owned company, Apache’s culture exemplifies continuous improvement, efficiency, innovation and commitment to our customer. Phone: (920) 356-9900 or (800) 444-0398 E-mail: info@apachestainless.com Web: www.apachestainless.com 200 W. Industrial Drive | Beaver Dam, WI 53916 USA ASME tanks manufactured by Apache are found in fuel refineries, ethanol plants, chemical industries, pharmaceutical and bio- technology companies, food processing facilities, water treatment facilities and health and beauty product manufacturing plants. Apache has fully equipped facilities that allow fabrication of our products in-house. Punched and laser cut dimple sheet prior to plug weld
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