(14)C has long been used as a tracer for quantifying the in vivo human metabolism of food components, biopharmaceuticals, and nutrients. Minute amounts (< or =1 x 10 (-18) mol) of (14)C can be measured with high-throughput (14)C-accelerator mass spectrometry (HT (14)C-AMS) in isolated chemical extracts of biological, biomedical, and environmental samples. Availability of in vivo human data sets using a (14)C tracer would enable current concepts of the metabolic behavior of food components, biopharmaceuticals, or nutrients to be organized into models suitable for quantitative hypothesis testing and determination of metabolic parameters. In vivo models are important for specification of intake levels for food components, biopharmaceuticals, and nutrients. Accurate estimation of the radiation exposure from ingested (14)C is an essential component of the experimental design. Therefore, this paper illustrates the calculation involved in determining the radiation exposure from a minute dose of orally administered (14)C-beta-carotene, (14)C-alpha-tocopherol, (14)C-lutein, and (14)C-folic acid from four prior experiments. The administered doses ranged from 36 to 100 nCi, and radiation exposure ranged from 0.12 to 5.2 microSv to whole body and from 0.2 to 3.4 microSv to liver with consideration of tissue weighting factor and fractional nutrient. In comparison, radiation exposure experienced during a 4 h airline flight across the United States at 37000 ft was 20 microSv.